Halpern, B. S., S. Walbridge, K. A. Selkoe, C. V. Kappel, F. Micheli, C. D'Agrosa, J. F. Bruno,
K. S. Casey, C. Ebert, H. E. Fox, and R. Fujita. 2008. ‘A global map of human impact on marine
ecosystems’. Science 319(5865): 948-952.
Figure 10.1: Cumulative human impact
Modelled cumulative anthropogenic threat index
(Halpern, 2008) described by a continuous blue/yellow/red colour ramp. Spatial model incorporates
17 global data sets of anthropogenic drivers of ecological change within the marine ecosystem (e.g.
nutrient run off, pollutants (organic and inorganic), fisheries, invasive species, shipping, ocean
acidification and sea surface temperature) to highlight spatially explicit areas where marine
ecosystems may be negatively impacted by human activity. EEZ (broken line).